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テストで点が取れない、成績が上がらない、と思ってる人の中には、「ちゃんとやってるのに」と思ってる人もたくさんいるはずです。

 「ちゃんと」授業受けてるのに
 「ちゃんと」ノート取ってるのに
 「ちゃんと」テスト勉強してるのに

こんなふうにです。

ちゃんとやってる→なのにだめ。
こういうのが続くと何を疑うようになるか、分かるかな。

それは自分の能力です。
「ああ自分は頭が悪いんだ」「ああ自分はダメな人間なんだ」「自分に勉強は向いてないんだ」「っていうか勉強嫌いだし」って思うようになります。
まさにそう思ってる人、そう思い始めてる人もいるんじゃないかな。


ーーーーーー


でも自分の能力を疑う前に、他に疑ってほしいところがあります。
それは「ちゃんと」というところ。

ちゃんとやってるのに伸びない。
その「ちゃんと」自体が間違ってる、って考えてみようよ。

 そんなことない!
 だって居眠りもお喋りもしないで、黒板も全部ノートに書いて色も使って、テスト勉強だって2週間も前からしてるもん!

そういう反論もあるかもしれません。
じゃあここでちょっと例え話ね。


ーーーーーー


■スタート地点からゴール地点までの50メートルをなるべく早く進んでください。
 50メートルの道のりには「森のコース」と「アスファルトで舗装された道路のコース」があります。
 どの道をどのように進んでも構いません。
 「自転車」が用意してあります。使用しても構いません。
 制限時間は1時間。


こういうルールの競技があったとします。
「森の道」を通っても「舗装路(ほそうろ:整備された道路)」を通ってもよくて、なるべく早くゴールすればいいんだよね。
君ならどうしますか。

まあ道路を進むよね。
走っても10秒で着きます。
自転車使ったらより速いかもね。
でも別に歩いたって、まあ1分でゴールできるはずです。

何このつまらない例え話。って思う?
この例え話が何をイメージしてるか分かるかな。
もちろんテスト勉強などをイメージしている例え話です。
似た問題はこんなの。


■2週間後にあるテストでなるべく高い点数を取ってください。
 どこをどのように進めても構いません。
 制限時間は2週間。


これが元のイメージです。似てるって分かるかな。
じゃあここでね、さっきの例え話でこう答える人がいたらどう思う?

 私は楽をしないでちゃんと森を通っていきました。
 便利な道具があったんでちゃんと自転車も使いました。
 森に入ってすぐに自転車がパンクしちゃって、そのとき枝が腕に刺さってケガしちゃって、ちょっと泣いたけど、でもその自転車を引きずって森の中を頑張って進みました。
 ほんと森が超茂ってて、木の幹がこんなに太くて、自転車をいちいち持ち上げなきゃいけなくて超大変で。
 でも制限時間ギリギリまで諦めないで頑張りました。
 結局10メートルしか進めなかったけど、でもちゃんと頑張ったんで、この反省を次に活かそうと思います。

どう思うかな。
なんか言い訳っぽいというか、そんな無駄な頑張りする必要あった?って思うよね。
え? 別に森に入んなくても、道路進めばよかったんじゃない?って。
でもなぜか、テスト勉強のことになると、似たような答えをする人がいるんです。

 私はまず、今回こそは頑張りたかったんで、教科書もプリントもワークも全部やることにしました。
 教科書は20ページ、プリント12枚、ワーク40ページもあって本当に大変でした。
 土曜日を全部その科目に使っても教科書3ページ分、プリント2枚にワークは6ページしか進みませんでした。
 もう本当大変で。部活もテスト前だけどミーティングとかもあって。だから全然間に合わなくて。
 でも諦めないで当日ギリギリまで頑張りました。
 結局点数は52点。しかもこの科目に集中したから他の科目は結構悪い点数でした。
 でもちゃんと頑張ったんで、この反省を次に活かそうと思います。

こんなふうに、さっきの森と道路の問題だと絶対にしないやり方を、テスト勉強になるとやってしまう人がたくさんいます。
結構似たようなこと思ったことのある人も多いんじゃないかな。

この人は確かに「ちゃんと」やろうとしてたよね。
教科書もプリントもワークも部活も全部。2周間前からやって土曜日はずっとその科目勉強して。

だけど時間が明らかにたりてない。
何かが明らかにうまくいってない。
明らかなキャパオーバー(キャパシティ(入る容量)をオーバー(超えている))。

だけど「ちゃんと」やってるから、「一生懸命」やってるから、自分は悪くないと思ってるんだよね。
でもそれでは、森に自転車を持って行く人と同じです。

一生懸命やってないとは思ってないんです。
頑張ろうとしてるのは知ってるの。
だけどやり方をちょっとは工夫しないと、時間も間に合わない、点数も取れないで、どうしたらいいかもっと分かんなくなっていきます。
そしたらどうなるかはさっき言ったよね。ダメなのは自分って思っちゃうんだ。

そう思う前に、やり方工夫しようよ。
ちゃんとやるっていうのは、茂った森を進むってことじゃないの。
道路を通って楽をしたって、全然構わない。

頑張ってるのに伸びない人の中には、「頑張り方」を疑わない人が多いのは事実です。
頑張ってるんだから、ちゃんとしてるんだから、できないはずがないと思っちゃうんだよね。
だけどできないから困っていたはずです。

うまく楽をするってことを、もっと考えて勉強してみよう。
裏技使えってことじゃないよ。
もっと素直にやる方法がたくさんあるんだよということ。


ーーーーーー


次のページとその次のページで、その具体的な方法を少し紹介します。
自分を責めないで、やり方で攻めましょう。


 次のページ(授業の受け方 〜ノート取りすぎんな〜)
 もくじ




by dekiyosite | 2017-04-29 11:35 | 雑談

ある程度の文法を練習してきました。
このサイトの特徴は分かってくれたかな。

それは「同じレベルの文をたくさん載せる」ということ。
なぜそういうことをするかというと、教科書や問題集ではそういった練習がしにくいからです。
教科書や問題集は軽く触れてすぐ先に行きすぎです。苦手な気持ちになるのも分かる。
だから絶対必要だと思って、作ってきました。
同じレベルの文を、ちゃんと知識が付くまでの量の文をです。

各ページの最後に「英文稽古」というひたすら英文が並んでるところがありました。
まず英語を読んで、その後訳せるかどうかチェックするんだったよね。

このページはそれら全部を一覧にしています。読んで、訳せるを、総チェックしてみよう。
このページをコピペして印刷して練習してもいいし、学校や塾の先生が課題用に使ってもらっても構いません。

1文でもわからないのがあれば必ずそのページに行って解説を読み込むこと。
きっと分かるはずです。

総復習のページだからね。
これが全部スラスラ読めて訳せればかなり強いよ。


● 一般動詞 ●

I like sushi.
You don't like sushi.
She likes dogs.
He doesn't like dogs.
We like cats.
They don't like cats.

Do you like soccer?
Yes, I do.
Does she like baseball?
No, she doesn't.
Do they like tennis?
Yes, they do.

I played the piano.
I played the piano yesterday.
You didn't play the piano yesterday.
She studied English yesterday.
He didn't study English yesterday.
We watched the movie yesterday.
They didn't watch the movie yesterday.

Did you play the piano yesterday?
Yes, I did.
Did she study English yesterday?
Yes, she did.
Did they watch the movie yesterday?
No, they didn't.


● be動詞 ● 

I am Tanaka.
I'm Tanaka.
I'm not a student.
You are Matsumoto.
You are not Matsumoto.
You aren't a student.
She is Sato.
He is not Sato.
He isn't a teacher.
We are students.
They are not students.
They aren't teachers.

Is she Kato?
Yes, she is.
Are they students?
No, they aren't.
Are you Shimizu?
No, I'm not.

I was busy.
I was busy yesterday.
You were not busy yesterday.
You weren't busy yesterday.
She was free last night.
He was not free last night.
He wasn't free last week.
We were happy two days ago.
They were not happy two days ago.
They weren't happy two weeks ago.

Was she free yesterday?
Yes, she was.
Were they happy last night?
No, they weren't.
Were you busy two days ago?
No, I wasn't.


● 不規則動詞とおぼえ方 ● 

※ここは特殊な練習方法。

原型だけを見て「原型・過去形・過去分詞形」と音が出るかをチェック。
さらに意味も分かるかをチェック。
(例:become→ビカム・ビケイム・ビカム、なる。)

become
begin
break
bring
build
buy
catch
choose
come
cut
do
eat
feel
find
fly
get
give
go
have
hear
keep
know
leave
lend
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read
run
say
see
sell
send
sing
sit
sleep
speak
spend
swim
take
teach
tell
think
understand
win
write


● 進行形 ● 

I study English.
I am studying English.
I'm studying English.
You are not studying math.
You aren't studying math.
She is playing basketball.
He is not playing basketball.
He isn't playing basketball.
We are playing the piano now.
They are not playing the piano now.
They aren't doing homework now.
I'm not doing homework now.

Is she studying English?
Yes, she is.
Are they playing basketball?
No, they aren't.
Are you doing homework now?
No, I'm not.

I was reading a book.
I was reading a book then.
You were not reading a book then.
You weren't reading a book then.
She was running then.
He was not running then.
He wasn't walking then.
We were singing at that time.
They were not singing at that time.
They weren't talking at that time.

Was she walking then?
Yes, she was.
Were they talking then?
No, they weren't.
Were you reading a book at that time?
No, I'm not.


● There is / are / was / were ● 

I'm Tanaka.
I'm in Tokyo.
I'm not in Tokyo.
You are not in Kyoto.
She was at the station yesterday.
He was not at the station yesterday.
We are there.
They were not here.

There is a book.
There is a book on the desk.
There are books on the desk.
There was a book under the table.
There were books under the table.

There is not a notebook in the box.
There was not a notebook in the box.
There are some books on my desk.
There aren't any books on my desk.
There were some books under your desk.
There weren't any books in his desk.

There are some boys in the room.
Are there any boys in the room?
No, there aren't.
Was there a girl on the desk?
Yes, there was.
There were some birds over there.
Were there any birds over there?
Yes, there were.


● 助動詞 ● 

He plays the piano.
He can play the piano.
He will play the piano.
He must use this PC.
He should use this PC.

Can he use that PC?
No, he can't.
Will he use it?
Yes, he will.

He can buy the car.
He can not buy the car.
He cannot buy the car.
He can't answer the question.
He will not answer the question.
He won't answer her question.

She is tired.
She may be tired.
She must be tired.
She is busy.
She may be busy.
She must be busy.
She may be sick.
She must be sick.

I can read this book.
You should read this book.
She must go there.
She can't go there.
He will come here.
He won't come here.
We are in Yokohama.
We may be in Yokohama.
They are crazy.
They must be crazy.



He plays the guitar.
He can play the guitar.
Can he play the guitar?
No, he can't.
He is able to play the drums.
Is he able to play the drums?
Yes, he is.
He can't play the guitar well.
He isn't able to play the drums well.

She will go there.
She is going to stay here.
Is she going to stay here?
Yes, she is.
She isn't going to go to Nara.

They must study math.
Must they study math?
He has to study history.
Does he have to study history?

She must not watch the game.
She doesn't have to watch the game.

Must I play the piano?
You don't have to play the piano today.

Must I eat this salad?
You must not eat it because it is poisonous!

Will you clean this room?
Can you help me?
Would you clean these rooms?
Could you help us?

Can I take a photo?
May I take a photo?

Shall I take a picture?
No, thank you.

Shall we go?
Let's go.

I want something sweet.
Do you want something sweet?
I would like something hot.
Would you like something cold?

I want to go there.
I would like to go there.
I'd like to stay here.

You are able to be here.
You will be able to be here tomorrow.
You won't be able to come back.
I am going to sleep.
We aren't going to go to the river.
We have to swim.
Do we have to catch him?
You must not study English.
Don't study!
You don't have to go to school.
Must I see him?
You don't have to do.
You mustn't do.
Will you come?
Can you come with me?
Can I draw a picture here?
May I help you?
Shall I close the window?
Would you dance with me?
Could you tell me?
I would like to play tennis.


● 受動態 ● 

I use this camera.
This camera is used.
This camera is used by me.
This camera is used by you.
This camera is not used by her.
This desk isn't used.
Is this desk used?
Is that desk used by him?
Yes, it is.

This song is loved.
These songs are loved.
Those DVDs aren't watched by her.
Are children loved?

Many people watched the movie.
The movie was watched.
The movie was watched by many people.
These books were read by us.
This book wasn't written by me.
Those CDs weren't sold.
Was the letter written by him?
Yes, it was.
Were those books bought by her?
No, they weren't.

I was surprised at the news.
I am interested in music.
The world is covered with snow.
This table was made of wood.
Wine is made from grapes.
He was not surprised at the news.
He isn't interested in music.
Yokohama was not covered with snow.
This pen wasn't made of wood.
You are not made from grapes.


● 現在完了 ● 

She lives in Osaka.
She lived in Osaka last year.
She has lived in Osaka since last year.

I am sick.
I have been sick.
I have been sick for two days.
I have been sick since two days ago.
She has lived in Osaka since last year.
She has not lived in Osaka since last year.
Has she lived in Osaka since last year?
Yes, she has.
How long has she lived in Osaka?

I have finished my homework!
I have already finished my homework!
I have just finished my homework!
I have cleaned my room.
Have you cleaned your room yet?
No, I haven't.
I haven't cleaned my room yet.

I have watched the movie twice.
She has watched the movie many times.
He has never watched the movie.
He has been to Kyoto once.
Have you ever watched the movie?
Have you ever been to America before?
Have you watched the movie four times?
How often have you watched the movie?
How many times have you watched the movie?

I know her.
I have known her.
I have known her since three years ago.
How long have you known her?
We have lunch.
We have had lunch.
We have already had lunch.
We haven't had lunch yet.
Have you had lunch yet?
She read this book.
She has read this book three times.
She has never read that book.
Have you read this book?
Have you ever read this book?
How often have you read this book?
You have been to Sendai before.
He has never been to Sendai.
Have you ever been to Sendai before?
How many times have you been to India?


● 命令文 ● 

I read books.
Read books!
She reads books.
Read books!
Read the book.
Don't read the book!
You study English.
Study English!
Don't study English.
Don't study!
You are kind.
Be kind.
Don't be kind.
You are late.
Be late!
Don't be late.
Do not fear mistakes.
Go straight.
Look at the window!
Please look at the window.
Look at the window, please.

I like dogs and cats.
Do you like dogs or cats?
Study English.
Study English, and you will understand it.
Study English, or you won't understand it.
Study English, or you will become fool.
Study hard, and you will be smart.
Read many books, and you will be kind.
Hurry up, and you will catch the train.
Hurry up, or you won't catch the train.
Get up early, or you will be late.
Practice hard, or you will lose.


● I my me mine のやつ ● 

※以下の「I my me mineのやつ」を言いなさい

I
You
She
He
It
We
You
They



These are his notebooks.
Those are her notebooks.


● a an the(冠詞) ● 

theは何のサインでしょう?



問題
数えられない名詞の①液体系②概念系③意外系を3つずつ答えなさい

I bought a book.
I bought books.
I bought two books.
I bought water.
I have money.

I want some water.
I want some coffee.
I want a cup of coffee.
I need a piece of paper.

I have many books.
I have much money.
There are many libraries in this city.
There is much information.
I have a lot of pencils.
I need a lot of money.
How many sisters do you have?
How much?

You have a few books.
I lived in London a few years ago.
She has a little money.
We need a little time.
He has few books.
I have few friends.
They have little money.
There is little information.



There are some boys.
There are some girls under the tree.
I want some water.
I want to buy some books.
I have some.
I have some more.
Give me some more.
Please have some more.
Can I have some more tea?

Are there any girls under the tree?
There aren't any boys in this room.
Do you have any questions?
Do you have any brothers or sisters?
Are there any problems?
I don't have any pets.
I didn't have any plans yesterday.
Any student can sing well.
Any student in this class can answer that question.
I can write any Kanji.
I can solve any problem.
Please give me any advice.

Every student is kind.
Every person is different.
I want to read every book in this library.

I have time.
I have no time.
I have no money.
I have no plan today.
There are no boys.
There are no clouds in the sky.
No student goes there.
No book is useful.

I need someone.
You don't need anyone.
Do you need anyone too?
Someone helped me.
Anyone didn't help me.
Does anyone know the answer?
Anyone can answer the question.
I love everyone.
Does everyone like soccer?
Everyone didn't sing.
No one was there.
No one is perfect.
No one can do it.

I need somebody.
Somebody touched me.
He didn't see anybody.
Is anybody home?
Anybody can read it.
Everybody's here.
Everybody is waiting for you.
Nobody knows.
Nobody hates you.

That is an important thing.
I can't eat sweet things.
You did a good thing.

Say something.
Something is wrong.
I can't say anything.
Do you see anything?
Everything is OK.
Everything is alright.
Everything's gonna be alright.
I have nothing.
You fear nothing.

important things
something important
I want something good.
Do something different.
You found something interesting.
Is there anything interesting?
You didn't do anything wrong.
There is nothing special.
Is there someone rich?

Some people don't believe it.
Some students say that it is good.
Some read books.
Some people like cats, others like dogs.



It is your notebook.
I want it.
It is Saturday.
It's your birthday.
It was a nice day yesterday.
It is eight.
What day is it today?
What time is it now?
It is ten meters.
It is about 150 centimeters.
It is seven kilometers from here to your town.
It takes two hours.
It takes about forty minutes by train.

It is rainy.
It is cloudy.
It is sunny today.
It is windy.
It rains.
It will rain today.
It is raining now.
It snows.
It snowed today.
He stopped running.
It stopped raining.
It started snowing.
We had a lot of snow in winter.
We had much rain last year.
We had no snow last winter.
We have a lot of rain in June.
We don't have snow in this town.
We have little snow here.
It was rainy.
It rained.
We had rain.
It was fine today.
It was clear yesterday.
The weather is nice.
The sky is clear.


● it と one ● 

I like English, but I don't understand it.
I lost my bag, but I found it.
He gave me a watch. It was nice.
I bought a car. Do you have one?
Do you have a pen? / Yes, I have one.
I lost my bag. I must buy a new one.
I will give you a red pen or blue one. Which one do you want?
I lost my notebooks. I must buy new ones.
I ate apples. My mother bought them yesterday.
I bought apples yesterday. I will eat some.



名詞、形容詞、副詞について説明しなさい


● 不定詞 to do ● 

I like books.
I like to read books.
I like to sing.
I like to study English.
I like to play the piano.
I like to visit Okinawa.
I start to sing.
I begin to sing.
I try to sing.
I need to sing.
I started to sing.
I began to sing.
I tried to sing.
I needed to sing.
I want to sing.
I want to read books.
I want to study English.
I want to play the piano.
I want to visit Okinawa.
To read books is interesting.
My dream is to read many books.
To sing is interesting.
To study English is interesting.
To play the piano is interesting.
To visit Yamanashi is interesting.
My dream is to go to Hiroshima.
My dream is to sing with Mr.Kuwata.
I am a teacher.
I become a teacher.
My dream is to be a teacher.
My dream is to become a teacher.
My dream is to be a writer.
My dream is to become a researcher.
I want to be your driver.

I went to the library.
I went to the library to study Math.
I went to N.Y. to study dance.
We went to Nagasaki to think about peace.
She went to Ikebukuro to watch a play.
I came here to see you!

I was surprised.
I'm glad.
You look happy.
She was sad.
I was surprised to see you.
I was surprised to see her there.
I'm glad to see you again.
You look happy to buy the book.
She was sad to hear the news.

I have homework.
I have homework to do.
I have homework to do today.
You have a lot of homework to do.
She had a lot of work to do yesterday.
You still have work to do.
I have a lot of things to do this week.
I have no time.
I have no money.
I have no friends.
I have no plan today.
There are no dogs.
There are no clouds in the sky.
I have no time to do homework.
I have no time to call you.
I have no friends to help me.
something to eat
something to drink
I want something to eat.
Do you want anything to drink?
He doesn't want anything to eat.
something hot to eat
something cold to drink
I want something hot to eat.
Do you want anything cold to drink?
She didn't want anything cold to eat.

I work to eat.


● 動名詞 doing ● 

I like to read books.
I like reading.
I like singing.
I like studying English.
I like playing the piano.
I like visiting Okinawa.
I started singing.
I began singing.
Reading books is interesting.
Singing is interesting.
Studying English is interesting.
Playing the piano is interesting.
Visiting Yamanashi is interesting.
My job is painting.
My job is collecting data.
My hobby is painting.
My hobby is playing soccer.

I want to read books.
I want to play the piano.
I want to visit Okinawa.
I decided to go to Hokkaido.
I decided to live in Tokyo.
I decided to be an animator.
I wish to go.
I wish to see you.
I hope to go to Aomori.
I hope to see you soon.
I enjoyed reading the book.
He enjoyed running.
We enjoyed watching the movie.
I finished reading the book.
He finished running.
We finished watching the movie.
I stopped reading the book.
He stopped running.
We stopped watching the movie.

I wash my hands before eating lunch.
I do exercises before running.
I eat lunch after washing my hands.
I run after doing exercises.
He eats lunch without washing my hands.
He runs without doing exercises.

I am good at English.
He is good at singing.
You are good at playing the guitar.
She is interested in Japanese history.
I am interested in traveling.
You are interested in playing the piano.
How about lunch with me?
How about running with me?
How about going shopping?
Thank you for the letter.
Thank you for coming.
Thank you for helping me.


● 分詞 doing/done ● 

※「()」と「矢印」を付けなさい

sleeping dogs
The sleeping dogs are my dogs.
Do you know that sleeping baby?
That singing boy is his child.
dogs sleeping in his house
The dogs sleeping in his house are my dogs.
I don't know the baby sleeping in her arms.
The woman playing the piano is Hiromi.
The girl waiting for you is Akemi.
The boy studying over there is Take.

broken windows
Do you see the broken windows?
windows broken by her
The windows were broken by her.
The guitar played by Ken is mine.
Look at the picture taken by him.
I'm reading the book written by Itoi.
The picture painted by her is great.
She bought a watch made in Italy.


● 関係代名詞 ● 

※4つの記号(①() ②△ ③← ④_)を入れなさい

I have a friend who lives in Osaka.
I know the girl who is singing over there.
They are scientists who use computers every day.
I have a book which was written by a famous scientist.
This is a song which is loved by everyone.
He lives in a house which has a lot of rooms.
The girl who is playing the piano is my friend.
The boys who are swimming there are my friends.
The dog which is sitting under the tree is mine.
The cat which has blue eyes is his.

He is a teacher that everyone likes.
She is a girl that I met yesterday.
Tokyo is a city which I like.
This is a letter which he wrote.
The girl that we saw yesterday was his sister.
The man that I want to meet is Tamori.
The book which I read yesterday was interesting.
The story which she told me was exciting.
The phone which he has is very popular.
The desk which my father bought for me was too big.

He is a teacher everyone likes.
She is a girl I met yesterday.
Tokyo is a city I like.
This is a letter he wrote.
The girl we saw yesterday was his sister.
The man I want to meet is Tamori.
The book I read yesterday was interesting.
The story she told me was exciting.
The phone he has is very popular.
The desk my father bought for me was too big.


● 接続詞 that ● 

That is her notebook.
That notebook is mine.

He likes dogs.
I know that he likes dogs.
I know that she doesn't like cats.
He knows that she loves you.
I think that she loves you.
I think that you are good.
She thinks that her friend is a bad girl.
I say that you can win.
He says that his friend can sing well.
I hope that you go there.
Your friend hopes that you will come.
I believe that they have notebooks.
Their children believe that they are good parents.
I know he likes dogs.
I know she doesn't like cats.
He knows she loves you.
I think she loves you.
I think you are good.
She thinks her friend is a bad girl.
I say you can win.
He says his friend can sing well.
I hope you go there.
Your friend hopes you stay here.
I believe they have notebooks.
Their children believe they are good parents.
I think that she loves you.
I thought that she loved you.
I thought that the pen was nice.
I knew that he liked dogs.
I knew that she didn't like cats.
He knew that it was interesting.
I thought that it was fun.
She thought that his friend was cool.
I said that you were fool.
They said that I was a good tennis player.
He said that they could sing well.
I hoped that you stayed here.
His friend hoped that he would come here.
We hoped that you became happy.
I believed that it was possible.
Their parents believed that the teacher was good.
I think she loves you.
I thought she loved you.
I thought the pen was nice.
I knew he liked dogs.
I knew she didn't like cats.
He knew it was interesting.
I thought it was fun.
She thought his friend was cool.
I said you were fool.
They said I was a good tennis player.
He said they could sing well.
I hoped you stayed here.
His friend hoped he would come here.
We hoped you became happy.
I believed it was possible.
Their parents believed the teacher was good.

[できるひとだけ]
He knows that everyone likes the teacher.
He knows the teacher that everyone likes.
He knows everyone likes the teacher.
He knows the teacher everyone likes.
She knew I met the girl yesterday.
She knew the girl I met yesterday.

I am glad to hear the news.
I was surprised to see you.
I am glad that I hear the news.
I was glad that I heard the news.
I was surprised that I saw you.
I am glad that I will see you again.
I'm glad that the weather is good.
I was happy that you played the piano.
I'm sad that you don't like it.
I'm sad that I can't meet you.
I am sorry that I can't go.
I am sorry that I can't speak well.
I was sorry that I was late.
I am sure that she will come here.
I am sure that he will help me.
I am sure that you believe me.
I am glad I hear the news.
I was glad I heard the news.
I was surprised I saw you.
I am glad I will see you again.
I'm glad the weather is good.
I was happy you played the piano.
I'm sad you don't like it.
I'm sad I can't meet you.
I am sorry I can't go.
I am sorry I can't speak well.
I was sorry I was late.
I am sure she will come here.
I am sure he will help me.
I am sure you believe me.

He is kind.
He is so kind.
He is so kind that I like him.
He is so cool that everyone loves him.
I am so happy that I can dance on the road.
I am so busy that I can't go there.
You were so smart that she liked you.
She was so rich that she could buy everything.
She was so tired that she couldn't take a bath.


● 接続詞 副詞節 ● 

I lived in London.
When I was young, I lived in London.
I lived in London when I was young.
When I was a child, I could speak English.
I went to the river when I was a student.
When I came home, he was there.

While he was talking, I wanted to sleep.
I stayed here while it was raining.

I studied English before I went to America.
Before you go there, I have to say.
I studied English after I went to America.
After I danced, I went home.

Wait here until I come back.
He lived till he was 100 years old.
Until he comes, I cannot go.
I slept until noon.

I want to eat more because I like it.
I love you because you are nice.
because he sang to me, I became happy.
I was late because of the rain.

If you stay here, I can do it.
If it is raining, I can't go.
Please call me if it is alright.

Though I can write English, I can't speak it.
Though he was very tired, he went there.
Although he told the truth, I can't believed it.
He is forty though he looks young.


● 文型 ● 

5文型について簡単に説明しなさい

You are happy.
You look happy.
He looks unhappy.
It is good.
It sounds good.
I am hungry.
I feel hungry.
She is cute.
She becomes cute.
They looked tired.
It sounded interesting.
I felt angry.
Kanako became a writer.

I played soccer.
You like cooking.
She has a ball.
My grandfather wants money.

He gave me this book.
My teacher teaches me English.
Our teacher told us the truth.
She showed him a new coat.
I sent her a letter.
My brother bought me many pens.
My sister made you a cake.
He gave this book to me.
My brother bought many pens for me.
My teacher teaches English to me.
Our teacher told the truth to us.
She showed a new coat to him.
My sister made a cake for you.
I sent a letter to her.
I can't give you money.
He taught me cooking.
We told him thanks.
I showed them how to swim.
I will send you a present.
They bought me a watch.
She made us lunch.

She has a ball now.
I played soccer yesterday.
He bought me a watch yesterday.
He bought me a watch with her at Shibuya yesterday.

We call her Yuka.
I call him Tatsuya.
My teacher calls me Sato-san.
We call the dog Shiro
My parents named me Yuki.
She named the baby Taro.
We named the cat Kuro.
It makes me sad.
The news made me angry.
That game made us excited.
She keeps her room clean.
He kept me waiting.
I kept him waiting for a long time.
I leave the window open.
He may leave the window open.
You left the door open.

I live in Tokyo.
We went there.
The game started at nine.
The concert finished ten minutes ago.



疑問詞のある疑問文の作り方のコツは?

You like cars.
Do you like cars?
What do you like?
She likes sushi.
What does she like?
They played soccer yesterday.
What did they play yesterday?
It is a box.
Is it a box?
What is it?
What is that?
What are these?
What do you like?
What sport do you like?
What color does he like?
What singer does she like?
What subject did you like?
What time is it?
What kind of food do you like?
What kind of fruit does she like?
What kind of music did your father like?

He gave you that book.
Did he give you that book?
What did he give you?
He calls her Yuka.
Does he call her Yuka?
What does he call her?

What did you see?
Did you see A?
You saw A.
Did you see A?
What did you see?

What did you show them?
Did you show them A?
You showed them A.
Did you show them A?
What did you show them?

What did you call him?
Did you call him A?
You called him A.
Did you call him A?
What did you call him?

① What is this flower called in English? を、theyを主語にして能動態にしなさい
②「どんなスポーツに興味がありましたか」を英語にしなさい

What is on the table?
What is there?
What was there?
What are over there?



What do you like?
Which do you like?
Which do you like, cats or dogs?
Which do you like better, summer or winter?
Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
Which is your pen, this or that?
What food do you like?
Which food do you like?
Which song does he like better?
Which store does your mother prefer?
Which school do you go to?

You like Mari.
Do you like Mari?
Who do you like?
What do you like?
Who does she like?
Who are you?
Who am I?
An apple is on the table.
What is on the table?
He likes you.
Who does he like?
Who likes you?
You like her.
Who likes her?
The man ate it.
What did the man eat?
Who ate it?
He gave you that book.
What did he give you?
Who did he give that book?

It is yours.
Is it yours?
Whose is it?
It is his watch.
Whose watch is it?
Whose is this book?
Whose camera is this?

You were here.
Were you here?
Where were you?
He was on the street.
Was he on the street?
Where was he?
She lives in Saitama.
Does she live in Saitama?
Where does she live?
They went to Okinawa.
Did they go to Okinawa?
Where did they go?

You went to Japan last week.
Did you go to Japan last week?
When did you go to Japan?
Where did you go last week?
You saw me yesterday.
Did you see me yesterday?
When did you see me?
The game will begin at four.
Will the game begin at four?
When will the game begin?
The concert started at eleven.
Did the concert start at eleven?
When did the concert start?
When I was young, I can speak English.

Because you are kind, she likes you.
She likes you because you are kind.
Does she like you because you are kind?
Why does she like you?
He studies history because it is interesting.
Does he study history because it is interesting?
Why does he study history?
Her mother became a teacher because she loved children.
Did her mother become a teacher because she loved children?
Why did her mother become a teacher?

You come to school by train.
Do you come to school by train?
How do you come to school?
Nao goes to school on foot.
Does Nao go to school on foot?
How does Nao go to school?
This bread is good.
Is this bread good?
How is this bread?
How is the weather?
How is the game?
You are fine.
Are you fine?
How are you?
How is your mother?
How is everyone?
How old are you?
How old is he?
How long is it?
How long can you stay?
How far?
How far did you go?
How many sisters do you have?
How many people are there?
How many pages did you read?
How much?
How much is this bag?
How much money do you have?



You like cats.
Do you like cats?
You like cats, don't you?
You don't like dogs.
You don't like dogs, do you?
You are Yuka.
You are Yuka, aren't you?
You aren't Yuki, are you?
She likes sushi, doesn't she?
He doesn't like sports, does he?
They went there, didn't they?
They were busy yesterday, weren't they?
She isn't a student, is she?
He can swim fast, can't he?
You can't sing well, can you?

Do you know it?
Don't you know it?
いや、知ってるよ(英語に)
うん、知らない(英語に)
Doesn't she like music?
(likeなら?)
(likeじゃないなら?)
Aren't you a cook?
(cookなら?)
(cookじゃないなら?)
Wasn't he here then?
(wasなら?)
(wasn'tなら?)
「Aren't you tired?」「Yes」(日本語に)
「Don't you like?」「No」(日本語に)

what to do
when to do
where to go
which book to read
I don't know what to do.
You don't know when to go.
She doesn't know where to sing.
He didn't know which notebook to use.
I can't decide what to buy.
Did you decide where to go?
I don't know how to use.
Do you know how to play the game?
You taught me how to swim.
Can you tell me how to make?

What do you like?
I know what you like. 
What does she like?
I know what she likes.
I don't know who he is.
I don't know when she came.
I know when she will come.
I don't know where he lives.
I don't know where it is.
I don't know how old you are.
I know how long he will stay.
I don't know how many books he has.
I want to know why she has gone.
Please tell me why you want to go there.
What is on the table?
Who likes you?
Who ate it?
I don't know what is on the table.
I know who likes you.
Tell me who made it.

This is a beautiful song.
This song is beautiful.
What a beautiful song this is!
How beautiful this song is!
You are kind.
You are a kind man.
How kind you are!
What a kind man you are!
What a beautiful song!
How beautiful!
How kind!
What a kind man!
What a wonderful world!
How wonderful this world is!


● It - for - to - / ask 人 to do / too - to - ● 

To read books is fun.
It is fun to read books.
It is fun to play baseball.
It is important to study math.
It is easy to read this book.
It was difficult to understand it.
It is fun for me to read books.
It is fun for him to play soccer.
It is important for us to study history.
It was easy for you to sing this song.
It was difficult for them to answer it.

I asked him to teach English.
I asked her to read the book.
I will ask him to help us.
I told him to study English.
I told her to read it.
I will tell my sister to clean her room.
I want him to study math.
I want her to read more books.
I wanted my child to be a teacher.

I love you too.
The bath is too hot.
I am too busy to study science.
I'm too busy to watch the movie.
She was too tired to study.
I am so busy that I can't study science.
I'm so busy that I can't go there.
He was so tired that he couldn't come here.
This book is too difficult for me to read.
That tea was too hot for him to drink.
This book is so difficult that I can't read it.
That tea was so hot that he couldn't drink it.


● 比較 ● 

I am young.
I am younger.
I am younger than you.
You are taller than him.
He is smaller than his mother.
His car is bigger than mine.
This book is easier than that one.
That book is difficult.
That book is more difficult than this one.
This song is more beautiful than that one.
Art is more interesting than music.

I am the youngest.
I am the youngest in my family.
I am the youngest of the three.
You are the tallest in my class.
She is the smartest of the four.
This is the biggest car in the world.
This book is the heaviest of all.
She is famous.
She is the most famous in our school.
This picture is the most beautiful in the world.
This song is the most popular in my class.

This picture is good.
This picture is better than that one.
This picture is the best in the world.
He can sing well.
He can sing better than I.
He can sing the best in my class.
She runs fast.
She runs faster than I.
She runs the fastest of all women.
I like cats.
I like cats better.
I like cats the best.

I am young.
I am as young as him.
I am as old as him.
You are as tall as her.
This book is as easy as that one.
That question is as difficult as this one.
Art is as interesting as music.
You are not as tall as her.
This book is not as easy as that one.
That artist is not as famous as this one.
She can't sing as well as you.

以下の文の比較をなくせ
This book is as difficult as that one.
This book is more difficult than that one.
This book is the most difficult of all.
This book is bigger than that one.
This book is the biggest of all.


 おつかれさまでした。

 もくじ




by dekiyosite | 2017-04-02 07:52 | 英語

 関連ページ(be動詞の使い方)


比較はね、苦手な人もいるけど、全然難しいほうの文法じゃないからね(中学校のレベルなら!)。
このページ読めば基本はほぼ大丈夫になるはずです。まあやっていこうね。


ーーーーーー


■比較級

比較っていうのは「ーよりーの方が◯◯だ」っていうふうに比べることだよね。

 I am young.
 私は若い

この文をいったん「私はより若い」という文にします。

 I am younger.
 私はより若い

さらに「あなたより」っていう意味を付け加えると

 I am younger than you.
 私はあなたより若い

となります。

「①比較していることにerを付ける(上の文は若さを比べてる)」
「②than(ザン)と比較対象(上の文はyou)を書く」

例文を並べてみるね。

 You are taller than him.
 君は彼より背が高い

 He is smaller than his mother.
 彼は彼の母より小さい

 His car is bigger than mine.
 彼の車は私のより大きい(biggerはbigの比較級)

 This book is easier than that one.
 この本はあの本(one=book(詳しくはitとone))より簡単だ(easierはeasyの比較級)

これだけ!
そんでね、このページでよく出てくるのが「長い単語の場合」ってやつ。
長い単語ってなんだよって思うかもしれないけど、たとえば「difficult」。

 That book is difficult.
 あの本は難しい

これを「この本より」って言いたかったら

 That book is difficulter than this one.

となるわけではありません。
「長い単語」の場合、erの代わりにmore(モアー)を付けます。

 That book is more difficult than this one.
 その本はこの本より難しい

 This song is more beautiful than that one.
 この歌はあの歌(one=song)より美しい

 Art is more interesting than music.
 美術は音楽よりおもしろい

長い単語はすぐ慣れるので特に覚えなくていいです。
ここまでが比較級。


ーーーーーー


■最上級

最上級っていうのは「もっとも(いちばん)○○」という意味です。

 I am young.
 私は若い

この文をいったん「私はもっとも若い」という文にします。

 I am the youngest.
 私はもっとも若い

最上級には「est」と「the」も付けます。
さらに「家族の中で」っていう意味を付け加えると

 I am the youngest in my family.
 私は家族の中でもっとも若い

となります。
「3人の中で」って言いたいときは

 I am the youngest of the three.
 私は3人の中でもっとも若い

というふうになります。

「①比較していることにtheestを付ける(上の文は若さを比べてる)」
「②inofと比較対象(上の文はmy familyとthe three)を書く」

が書き方です。

「in」は「ひとまとまり」のときに使います。
「in my class」「in our school」「in the world」

「of」は指で数えられる感じのときに使います。1・2・3って。
「of the three」「the five people」「of all(allはinじゃないから注意)」

例文を並べてみるね。

 You are the tallest in my class.
 君は僕のクラスの中でいちばん背が高い

 She is the smartest of the four.
 彼女は4人の中でいちばん賢い

 This is the biggest car in the world.
 これは世界で一番大きい車です。(biggestはbigの比較級)

 This book is the heaviest of all.
 この本はすべての中でもっとも簡単だ(heaviestはheavyの最上級)

これにも長い単語のパターンが。

 She is famous.
 彼女は有名だ(famous:フェイマス)

これを「私たちの学校で」って言いたかったら、今度は「most(モスト)」を使います。
もちろん「the」も使うよ。

 She is the most famous in our school.
 彼女はわたしたちの学校もっとも有名だ

 This picture is the most beautiful in the world.
 この絵は世界中でいちばん美しい

 This song is the most popular in my class.
 この歌はわたしたちのクラスの中で一番人気(popular:ポピュラー)だ

こんな感じ!
difficultやbeautifulが長いのは分かると思うけど、famousやpopularも長い単語の仲間です。


ーーーーーー


■比較級と最上級のパターンもうちょっと

 goodとwellの比較級はbetter(ベター)最上級はbest(ベスト)です。

 This picture is good.
 この絵はいい

 This picture is better than that one.
 この絵はあの絵(one=picture)より良い

 This picture is the best in the world.
 この絵は世界中で最も良い(もちろんtheがつくよ)

wellの場合は

 He can sing well.
 彼は上手に歌うことができる

 He can sing better than I.
 彼は私より上手に歌うことができる(thanの後ろはmeじゃなくてIになることも多い)

 He can sing the best in my class.
 彼は私のクラスいちばん上手に歌うことができる

これに似たパターンで

 She runs fast.
 彼女は早く走る

 She runs faster than I.
 彼女は私より速く走る

 She runs the fastest of all women.
 彼女はすべての女性の中でいちばん速く走る(womanの複数形women:ウィメンと読みます)

また

 I like cats.
 私はネコが好き

に対して

 I like cats better.
 私はよりネコが好き

 I like cats the best.
 私はいちばんネコが好き

というのもできます。


ーーーーーー


■as - as -

「アズアズ」って読んで覚えちゃってください。

 I am young.
 私は若い

この文を「彼と同じくらい」と言うと

 I am as young as him.
 私は彼と同じくらい若い

「①比較していることにas asではさむ(上の文は若さを比べてる)」
「②2個目のas以下に比較対象を書く(上の文はhim)」

また、これは同じだってことを表してるだけで

 I am as old as him.
 私は彼と同じくらいの歳だ

こう書いたからって年寄りとは限りません。
じゃあ例文ね。as - as - には長い単語とか関係ありません。

 You are as tall as her.
 君は彼女と同じくらい背が高い

 This book is as easy as that one.
 この本はあの本(one=book)と同じくらい簡単だ

 That question is as difficult as this one.
 その問題はこの問題と同じくらい難しい

 Art is as interesting as music.
 美術は音楽と同じくらいおもしろい

ただ、as - as - は否定文がちょっと特徴的。
「not as - as -」で「ーほどではない」という意味になります。

 You are not as tall as her.
 君は彼女ほど背が高くはない(彼女のほうが背が高い)

 This book is not as easy as that one.
 この本はあの本ほど簡単ではない(あの本のほうが簡単)

 That artist is not as famous as this one.
 そのアーティストはこのアーティストほど有名じゃない(このアーティストのほうが有名)

 She can't sing as well as you.
 彼女は君ほどうまく歌えない(君のほうがうまい)

「as - as -」は同じくらいだけど「not as - as -」は同じじゃなくなるから気をつけて。


ーーーーーー


■比較のポイント

 This book is as difficult as that one.
 This book is more difficult than that one.
 This book is the most difficult of all.

今はこのページで比較をやってるからいいけど、
難しい文になって読めなくなったり並び替え問題で何を書いていいか分からなくなるときがあります。
そういうときのコツを。

まず「ふたつめのas以下」を消します(比較級の場合はthan以下、最上級の場合はofかin以下)

 This book is as difficult as that one.
 This book is more difficult than that one.
 This book is the most difficult of all.

次にひとつめのasを消します(比較級の場合はmore、最上級の場合はtheとmost)

 This book is as difficult as that one.
 This book is more difficult than that one.
 This book is the most difficult of all.

こうすると元の文

 This book is difficult.

が見えてくるでしょ。
こうすることで何が書いてあるか分かるし、
書きのときもとりあえずこれを書いてから「ひとつめのas」「ふたつめのas以下」って付けたせば書けるよ。

分かりやすいから「長い単語の場合」でやったけど

 This book is bigger than that one.
 This book is the biggest of all.

短い単語の場合も「er」「est」を消せば元通り。
これね、意外と、しかも困ったときに使えるから覚えておくといいよ。


ーーーーーーー


ということでおしまい!
慣れれば大丈夫だよ!慣れようね!


英文稽古

I am young.
I am younger.
I am younger than you.
You are taller than him.
He is smaller than his mother.
His car is bigger than mine.
This book is easier than that one.
That book is difficult.
That book is more difficult than this one.
This song is more beautiful than that one.
Art is more interesting than music.

I am the youngest.
I am the youngest in my family.
I am the youngest of the three.
You are the tallest in my class.
She is the smartest of the four.
This is the biggest car in the world.
This book is the heaviest of all.
She is famous.
She is the most famous in our school.
This picture is the most beautiful in the world.
This song is the most popular in my class.

This picture is good.
This picture is better than that one.
This picture is the best in the world.
He can sing well.
He can sing better than I.
He can sing the best in my class.
She runs fast.
She runs faster than I.
She runs the fastest of all women.
I like cats.
I like cats better.
I like cats the best.

I am young.
I am as young as him.
I am as old as him.
You are as tall as her.
This book is as easy as that one.
That question is as difficult as this one.
Art is as interesting as music.
You are not as tall as her.
This book is not as easy as that one.
That artist is not as famous as this one.
She can't sing as well as you.

以下の文の比較をなくせ
This book is as difficult as that one.
This book is more difficult than that one.
This book is the most difficult of all.
This book is bigger than that one.
This book is the biggest of all.




英文稽古訳

I am young.
私は若い
I am younger.
私はより若い
I am younger than you.
私はあなたより若い
You are taller than him.
君は彼より背が高い
He is smaller than his mother.
彼は彼の母より小さい
His car is bigger than mine.
彼の車は私のより大きい(biggerはbigの比較級)
This book is easier than that one.
この本はあの本(one=book(詳しくはitとone))より簡単だ(easierはeasyの比較級)
That book is difficult.
あの本は難しい
That book is more difficult than this one.
その本はこの本より難しい
This song is more beautiful than that one.
この歌はあの歌(one=song)より美しい
Art is more interesting than music.
美術は音楽よりおもしろい

I am young.
私は若い
I am the youngest.
私はもっとも若い
I am the youngest in my family.
私は家族の中でもっとも若い
I am the youngest of the three.
私は3人の中でもっとも若い
You are the tallest in my class.
君は僕のクラスの中でいちばん背が高い
She is the smartest of the four.
彼女は4人の中でいちばん賢い
This is the biggest car in the world.
これは世界で一番大きい車です。(biggestはbigの比較級)
This book is the heaviest of all.
この本はすべての中でもっとも簡単だ(heaviestはheavyの最上級)

She is famous.
彼女は有名だ(famous:フェイマス)
She is the most famous in our school.
彼女はわたしたちの学校もっとも有名だ
This picture is the most beautiful in the world.
この絵は世界中でいちばん美しい
This song is the most popular in my class.
この歌はわたしたちのクラスの中で一番人気(popular:ポピュラー)だ

This picture is good.
この絵はいい
This picture is better than that one.
この絵はあの絵(one=picture)より良い
This picture is the best in the world.
この絵は世界中で最も良い(もちろんtheがつくよ)
He can sing well.
彼は上手に歌うことができる
He can sing better than I.
彼は私より上手に歌うことができる(thanの後ろはmeじゃなくてIになることも多い)
He can sing the best in my class.
彼は私のクラスいちばん上手に歌うことができる
She runs fast.
彼女は早く走る
She runs faster than I.
彼女は私より速く走る
She runs the fastest of all women.
彼女はすべての女性の中でいちばん速く走る(womanの複数形women:ウィメンと読みます)
I like cats.
私はネコが好き
I like cats better.
私はよりネコが好き
I like cats the best.
私はいちばんネコが好き

I am young.
私は若い
I am as young as him.
私は彼と同じくらい若い
I am as old as him.
私は彼と同じくらいの歳だ
You are as tall as her.
君は彼女と同じくらい背が高い
This book is as easy as that one.
この本はあの本(one=book)と同じくらい簡単だ
That question is as difficult as this one.
その問題はこの問題と同じくらい難しい
Art is as interesting as music.
美術は音楽と同じくらいおもしろい

You are not as tall as her.
君は彼女ほど背が高くはない(彼女のほうが背が高い)
This book is not as easy as that one.
この本はあの本ほど簡単ではない(あの本のほうが簡単)
That artist is not as famous as this one.
そのアーティストはこのアーティストほど有名じゃない(このアーティストのほうが有名)
She can't sing as well as you.
彼女は君ほどうまく歌えない(君のほうがうまい)

答え
This book is as difficult as that one.
This book is more difficult than that one.
This book is the most difficult of all.
This book is bigger than that one.
This book is the biggest of all.




by dekiyosite | 2017-04-02 05:50 | 英語

 前のページ(付加疑問/否定疑問/疑問詞 to do/間接疑問/感嘆文)
 関連ページ(不定詞)


このページでは不定詞(to+動詞の原形)を使ったちょっとした文法事項を勉強します。
だから上の関連ページ「不定詞」は見ておくといいよ。
急ぎの人は冒頭の「名詞的用法」まででも大丈夫です。

また「疑問詞 to do」は参考書では不定詞関連のページ(要はこのページの仲間)に入れられることが多いんだけど、個人的にはwhatとかの仲間に入れたほうがいいかなと思ったので前のページに入れています。

それではこのページ!

 It - for - to -
 ask 人 to do
 too - to -

をやっていきます!


ーーーーーー


■It - for - to -


とにかくよく出てくる文です。
まずすることは「It - for - to -」と言いまくること。
この語順を覚えちゃいます。はい!

イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・イットフォートゥー・・・

覚えたかな?
それでは解説に行きます。

不定詞「名詞的用法」で

 To read books is fun.
 本を読むことはおもしろい

というのをやりました。
この不定詞のカタマリをいったん「It」と書きます。

 It is fun.

そんで書かなかった不定詞のカタマリを最後に持ってくる。

 It is fun to read books.
 本を読むことはおもしろい

訳はまったくおなじ。しかもItは訳しません。
ちゃんとした説明を後にしてとりあえず例文見てみようか。
①不定詞から訳す ②Itは訳さない がポイントです。

 It is fun to play baseball.
 野球をすることはおもしろい

 It is important to study math.
 数学を勉強することは大切です

 It is easy to read this book.
 この本を読むことは簡単だ

 It was difficult to understand it.
 それ(このitは普通のit)を理解することは難しかった

不定詞から訳して、(It以外の)残りを訳す。
このパターンが分かったかな?

後ろにある不定詞が本当の主語ということです。
このとりあえず置く訳さない「It」のことを形式主語といいます。
仮主語って言う人もいるかな。
名前は今は覚えなくても大丈夫だけどね。

たとえばさっきの文だけど

 It is fun to read books.
 本を読むことはおもしろい

これは「誰が」本を読むかは書いていないよね。
誰がとかじゃなくて「一般的に」本を読むことはおもしろいですよねって言ってるわけです。

普通の文章は「主語+動詞」って始まるけど、
不定詞のカタマリは「動詞」から始まるから「誰が」が書いてないのは当たり前です。

だけど、不定詞の前にforを置くとその「誰が」を説明することができます。

 It is fun for me to read books.
 私にとって本を読むことはおもしろい

 It is fun for him to play soccer.
 彼にとってサッカーをすることはおもしろい

 It is important for us to study history.
 私たちにとって歴史を勉強することは大切です

 It was easy for you to sing this song.
 あなたにとってこの歌を歌うことは簡単だった

 It was difficult for them to answer it.
 彼らにとってそれ(このitは普通のit)に答えることは難しかった

forは不定詞の前に訳して「ーにとって」と訳します。
不定詞に主語はないけど、主語の意味を付けたしてるから「意味上の主語」という名前です。
これもとりあえず覚えなくてもいいけどね。

この語順が「It - for - to -」だからこの文はそう呼ばれています。
forはあったりなかったりするから「It - (for…) to 〜」みたいに書くことが多いかな。
でも結局同じです。「It - for - to -」で覚えて、かつこのページで何度も練習してね。
慣れれば難しくない!

ただ長文の中だと、普通のitと仮主語のitがゴチャゴチャになるからちょっと難しいです。
最後にその見分け方だけやって、この文法を終わりにしよう。


【普通のitと形式主語のitの見分け方】

Itは基本「それ」って訳すよね。
いずれどこかで説明するけど「It」→「それ」だけじゃなくて、
「It」→「それ」→「それってなんだ?」まで考えるのが大切です。

だって日本語で「昨日のあれ楽しかったよね」っていう会話で「あれ」が分からなかったら困るよね。
英語になるとその作業をつい忘れちゃうんだよね。
だけど「it(それ→どれ?)」「this(これ→どれ?)」「then(そのとき→どのとき?)」みたいな発想はとにかく必要です。
こういう話はitとoneのページでも話していました。

ただ、ときどき「It」の「それ」が分からないときがあります。
そのとき形式主語の可能性が高いよ!
その文の後半に目線を飛ばします。不定詞がないかどうかをチェックしてください。
あったらそれ、形式主語!です!


ーーーーーー


■ask 人 to do

これもまず読みまくります。超出るからね。

アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・アスクひとトゥードゥー・・・

覚えた?
この作業なめてると2週間後に忘れるよ。

ask 人 to doは「人にdoするように頼む」っていうふうに訳します。

 I asked him to teach English.
 私は彼に英語を教えてくれるように頼んだ

私は「彼に」「英語を教えてくれるように」「頼んだ」という意味になります。
このサイトの例文はなるべく現在形から始めるようにしてるんだけど、ここは過去形のほうが自然だよね。

 I asked her to read the book.
 私は彼女にこの本を読むように頼んだ

 I will ask him to help us.
 私が彼に私たちを手伝ってくれるように頼む

この用法は代表的なのがあと2つあります。

まず「tell 人 to do」=「人にdoするように言う」。
askより強めです。

 I told him to study English.
 私は彼に英語を勉強するように言った

 I told her to read it.
 私は彼女にそれを読むように言った

 I will tell my sister to clean her room.
 私が妹に部屋を掃除するように言う

最後は「want 人 to do」=「人にdoしてほしい」。

 I want him to study math.
 私は彼に数学を勉強してほしい

 I want her to read more books.
 私は彼女にもっと(more)本を読んでほしい

 I wanted my child to be a teacher.
 私は子供に先生になってほしかった

これくらいかな。
「ask 人 to do」に加えて「tell 人 to do」「want 人 to do」も音読!今!
こんなの覚えとけばできるし、覚えとかなきゃできないだけだよ。

だから今やっとこうね。
自分で「もういいかな」って思うくらい読んどくだけ。


ーーーーーー


■too - to -

これもまず読む。
これは簡単めだね。

トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・トゥートゥー・・・

tooには「も」って意味もあったけど

 I love you too.
 私好きだよ

「過ぎる」っていう意味もあります。

 The bath is too hot.
 お風呂が熱すぎる

この「過ぎる」という意味には「限度を超えている」というイメージがあります。
「enough(イナフ)」は「十分、ちょうどいっぱい」っていうイメージがあるんだけど、
「too」はそれより多くて「やり過ぎじゃね?」というイメージ。
上の文章は温かいというより熱すぎて入れないというような意味があります。

そのtooを使った文法が今からやる「too - to -」。
「ーしすぎてーできない」と訳します。

 I am too busy to study science.
 私は忙しすぎて科学が勉強できない

 I'm too busy to watch the movie.
 私は忙しすぎてその映画が見れない

 She was too tired to study.
 彼女は疲れすぎて勉強できなかった

ここのポイントは「noとかnotがないのに否定の意味になる」ということです。
tooの「しすぎ」という意味が否定の意味につながっています。

このtoo - to - の文章は接続詞thatのページでやった「so-that-」の文とよく言い換えが起こります。
「so-that-」は「とてもーなのでー」。

 I am so busy that I can't study science.
 私はとても忙しいので科学が勉強できない

 I'm so busy that I can't go there.
 私はとても忙しいのでそこに行けない

 He was so tired that he couldn't come here.
 彼はとても疲れていたのでここに来られなかった(could クッド はcanの過去形)

こっちはちゃんとnotが入ってるよね。
不定詞は動詞から始まるけど、that節の中には「文まるごと」入っています。
どちらもとても大切な文章です。

さっき出てきた意味上の主語(不定詞の前にforを置く)を使ってもう少し。

 This book is too difficult for me to read.
 この本は難しすぎて私にはめない

 That tea was too hot for him to drink.
 あの紅茶は熱すぎて彼にはめなかった

これもthat節。主語が変わってるのに注目ね。

 This book is so difficult that I can't read it.
 この本はとても難しいので私は読めない

 That tea was so hot that he couldn't drink it.
 あの紅茶はとても熱いので彼は飲めなかった

こんな感じです。


ーーーーーー


以上がこのページ!
知ってれば分かるけど知らないと分からない文章ばかりです。
こんなの練習すればできるようになるからね。
「えー今やってるから分かるだけで長文の中で出てきたらわからないよー」と思ってた文章が
「あれ、これあの文じゃん」って分かるようになると結構驚くよ。

じゃあ英文稽古やっておしまい!


英文稽古

To read books is fun.
It is fun to read books.
It is fun to play baseball.
It is important to study math.
It is easy to read this book.
It was difficult to understand it.
It is fun for me to read books.
It is fun for him to play soccer.
It is important for us to study history.
It was easy for you to sing this song.
It was difficult for them to answer it.

I asked him to teach English.
I asked her to read the book.
I will ask him to help us.
I told him to study English.
I told her to read it.
I will tell my sister to clean her room.
I want him to study math.
I want her to read more books.
I wanted my child to be a teacher.

I love you too.
The bath is too hot.
I am too busy to study science.
I'm too busy to watch the movie.
She was too tired to study.
I am so busy that I can't study science.
I'm so busy that I can't go there.
He was so tired that he couldn't come here.
This book is too difficult for me to read.
That tea was too hot for him to drink.
This book is so difficult that I can't read it.
That tea is so hot that he couldn't drink it.


 次のページ(比較)
 もくじ


英文稽古訳

To read books is fun.
本を読むことはおもしろい
It is fun to read books.
本を読むことはおもしろい
It is fun to play baseball.
野球をすることはおもしろい
It is important to study math.
数学を勉強することは大切です
It is easy to read this book.
この本を読むことは簡単だ
It was difficult to understand it.
それ(このitは普通のit)を理解することは難しかった
It is fun for me to read books.
私にとって本を読むことはおもしろい
It is fun for him to play soccer.
彼にとってサッカーをすることはおもしろい
It is important for us to study history.
私たちにとって歴史を勉強することは大切です
It was easy for you to sing this song.
あなたにとってこの歌を歌うことは簡単だった
It was difficult for them to answer it.
彼らにとってそれ(このitは普通のit)に答えることは難しかった

I asked him to teach English.
私は彼に英語を教えてくれるように頼んだ
I asked her to read the book.
私は彼女にこの本を読むように頼んだ
I will ask him to help us.
私が彼に私たちを手伝ってくれるように頼む
I told him to study English.
私は彼に英語を勉強するように言った
I told her to read it.
私は彼女にそれを読むように言った
I will tell my sister to clean her room.
私が妹に部屋を掃除するように言う
I want him to study math.
私は彼に数学を勉強してほしい
I want her to read more books.
私は彼女にもっと(more)本を読んでほしい
I wanted my child to be a teacher.
私は子供に先生になってほしかった

I love you too.
好きだよ
The bath is too hot.
お風呂が熱すぎる
I am too busy to study science.
私は忙しすぎて科学が勉強できない
I'm too busy to watch the movie.
私は忙しすぎてその映画が見れない
She was too tired to study.
彼女は疲れすぎて勉強できなかった
I am so busy that I can't study science.
私はとても忙しいので科学が勉強できない
I'm so busy that I can't go there.
私はとても忙しいのでそこに行けない
He was so tired that he couldn't come here.
彼はとても疲れていたのでここに来られなかった(could クッド はcanの過去形)
This book is too difficult for me to read.
この本は難しすぎて私にはめない
That tea was too hot for him to drink.
あの紅茶は熱すぎて彼にはめなかった
This book is so difficult that I can't read it.
この本はとても難しいので私は読めない
That tea was so hot that he couldn't drink it.
あの紅茶はとても熱いので彼は飲めなかった




by dekiyosite | 2017-04-02 05:45 | 英語